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This is pretty straight forward. We declare what are the direct dependencies for this module, and initialize the router.

As it seems, the files I am loading (other than libraries) are my one model and the master view.


One thing you should notice about AMD modules is the return signature. Inside the module we have a sandbox we can use for private methods and variables. the only parts that will be accessible are what we are returning. In this case we are returning an object literal that contains both a model and a collection “classes” representing todos. I found this pattern useful, since models and collections are tightly coupled by definition.

The same apply for views:


This goes on an on. You can browse the code at GitHub to review the rest of it.

Once we are done with our basic app, we have 17 http requests for javascript libraries or assets. The next thing we want to do is optimize and combine the codebase into one file. We will do it using r.js which is a part of the RequireJS release. The dependencies for that are node.js and (we will load the other dependancies using `npm install`). We will create a build.js file with the following syntax:

Or if we chose to use almond.js: Note that our main app moved from ‘main’ to ‘include’, and almond gets the ‘main’ slot

What we did here, is to tell the optimizer what is our app URL, what file contains require.config, in what module to start, and where to output it (and a couple of optional semantic configuration bits such as keeping copyright comments and the log level)

The benefit of using almond.js is it compiles all to one file and eliminates the need to asynchronously load anything. You get for pretty much free leaner code – because you don’t use require.js anymore, and less http request – because you load one file other than two. The tradeoff is it eliminates the option to have a hybrid app where you load some modules asynchronously (a good example is remote apis such as google maps, etc.)

There’s a nice build.js example on the r.js repository with all the details you can dream of.

The last thing we do is run the build command in our root folder:

Now, we have an optimized file. The last thing we want to do is replace the script tag that loads RequireJS with:

Using AMD to create a modular backbone app is easy. it helps to:

And with all that, when optimized does not impact performance.

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This gives us the correct widths for everything, and we have more real estate to play with, so we made the header a little taller, too. Almost there, but our desktop layout calls for some reordering: the Sign Up and Content boxes should appear underneath all the Feature sections.


This is where flexbox really shines. Trying to create this combination of mobile and desktop layouts would be very difficult with floats . With flexbox’s 1TO9 Womens Retro HeeledSandals Studded Polypropylene Heeled Sandals MJS02529 Blue 7pWxkz9Cg
, it’s just a few lines of CSS. Append these rules to the desktop media query:

Ta da! A responsive website! Not bad for less than a hundred lines of CSS. More importantly, we didn’t have to alter a single line of HTML to accommodate our mobile, tablet, and desktop layouts.

This was just one example of laying out a responsive site. You can use these exact same techniques to implement all sorts of other designs. Start with the base styles that apply to your entire site, then tweak them for various device widths by selectively applying CSS rules with @media . You could even add another media query to, say, create a dedicated layout for ultra-widescreen monitors.

Disabling Viewport Zooming

We’ve got one final task for making a responsive web page. Before responsive design was a thing, mobile devices only had a desktop layout to work with. To cope with this, they zoomed out to fit the entire desktop layout into the width of the screen, letting the user interact with it by zooming in when necessary.

This default behavior will prevent mobile devices from using our mobile layout, which is obviously very terrible. To disable it, add the following element to the <head> of our document. Just like Puma Womens Ignite Ultimate Multi WNs Running Shoe Black US Black QdKezEjabh
, this is a critical element that should be on every single web page you create:

To see this in action, we’ll need to simulate a mobile device in our desktop browser. This is a little advanced for where we’re at right now, but we can give it a shot. Open up responsive.html in Google Chrome, then hit View> Developer > DeveloperTools in the menu bar. Then, to simulate a mobile device, click the Toggle Device Toolbar icon, highlighted below.

View> Developer > DeveloperTools Toggle Device Toolbar

You should see the zoom-disabled version of the above diagram in your browser, since it’s now pretending to be a mobile device. (We’ll save the in-depth discussion of Chrome dev tools for a future tutorial.)

Alternatively, if you’re reading this chapter on a smartphone, you can navigate to the live before and after versions of our example project to experience the effect of our viewport changes.

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